Errors in the speech of students and their correction is a large and complex topic, which is devoted to more than one scientific work. The format of the blog article does not allow considering this issue in detail, so I only touched on the main points.
Previously, I have already published 2 notes on errors and their correction. In one you can find a classification of types of errors in the speech of students, in the other advice on how to correct entrenched errors.
Since the article about english to hindi turned out to be voluminous, I divided it into 3 parts. The first is devoted to the role of errors, the second is the classification of errors, and the third is the correction of errors.
The role of errors.
The authors of English-language manuals on the methodology use different terminology to describe errors. Someone distinguishes between slips, mistakes, errors, blunders and faults, someone uses only the terms slip, mistake and errors, others only distinguish between error (a mistake that a student makes because he does not have the necessary knowledge) and slip (a student can formulate a thought correctly, but makes a mistake due to inattention, fatigue, stress, or some external circumstances). In this article, I will also limit myself to the terms error and slip, and, if necessary, I will specify in parentheses what kind of error we are talking about.
Errors occur for two main reasons. The first is the influence of the students’ native language (which is referred to in English sources as L1), called interference (interference) or transfer. If interference occurs, learners use the sounds and lexical and grammatical structures of their native language (L1) in the target language.
The second reason is that it takes some time for students to get used to the new rules and structures and japanese to english.As they master them, students will inevitably make mistakes, which can be called developmental errors. Such errors can be found both in the speech of foreign language learners and in the speech of young children mastering their native language. For example, children often say “I went” instead of “I went” – they apply the rule of using one unit of language to another unit of language, that is, they make a mistake that can be called overgeneralization. Such errors eventually disappear both from native speech and from the speech of students, as the level of language proficiency increases.
Errors are part of an interlanguage, that is, a language intermediate between native and studied, spoken by students at the elementary level. Interlanguage is constantly changing, being processed, developed and improved. Many researchers believe that interlanguage, like mistakes, is an important stage in language learning.
Growth errors and errors caused by native language influences often disappear on their own, without correction, as the student improves the language. Moreover, corrections will only be really useful if the student is ready for them, that is, is at the necessary stage in the personal learning process.
Sometimes mistakes do not disappear, but on the contrary, they are fixed, and students make them again and again for a long time. Such errors are also called “petrified” (fossilized, from the English fossil – fossil, fossil). Rooting out such errors is not an easy task, requiring time and patience. Read more about this type of error here.
On a note.
Careful consideration needs to be given to how and when to correct students.
Don’t expect immediate results. Learning is a gradual process and mistakes are inevitable.
In some cases, errors can be ignored, especially if the main purpose of the task is to develop fluency.
If the error distorts the meaning of the statement, then it is worth paying special attention to it. For example, the absence (in English) of the -s ending in the 3rd person singular in the Present Simple does not interfere with understanding the meaning of the statement, while the use of Present Simple instead of Past Simple can seriously impede communication.
Some students in the class need to be corrected, while others do not. It all depends on the level of the language and personal characteristics.
Mistakes help the teacher to understand how well the students have learned the material, and whether it is necessary to work on something extra.
Underline any errors in the written work of one of your students. Can you determine what caused the error in each case? Do all errors need to be corrected? If you have the opportunity, discuss your ideas with another teacher.